What are the eight functions of marketing?

What are the eight functions of marketing?

What are the eight functions of marketing?



The functions of marketing play a crucial role in the success of any business. Marketing involves a series of activities that help organizations identify, create, communicate, and deliver value to their customers. In this article, we will explore the eight key functions of marketing and understand how they contribute to the overall marketing strategy.

Market Research

Definition: Market research is the systematic gathering, recording, and analyzing of data about a particular market, including customers, competitors, and industry trends.

Market research is the foundation of effective marketing. It helps businesses understand their target market, identify customer needs and preferences, and evaluate the competition. Through market research, companies can make informed decisions about product development, pricing, distribution, and promotion strategies.

Product Development

Definition: Product development involves creating and improving products or services to meet customer needs and preferences.

This function of marketing focuses on designing, developing, and enhancing products or services that align with customer demands. It involves conducting market research, gathering customer feedback, and collaborating with various departments to create innovative offerings that differentiate the business from its competitors.


Definition: Pricing refers to determining the value of a product or service and setting a price that customers are willing to pay.

Pricing is a critical marketing function that affects both profitability and customer perception. It involves analyzing costs, understanding market demand, and considering competitive pricing strategies. Effective pricing strategies aim to strike a balance between maximizing revenue and ensuring customer satisfaction.


Definition: Promotion involves communicating the value of a product or service to the target market through various marketing channels.

Promotion includes advertising, public relations, sales promotions, and personal selling. The goal is to create awareness, generate interest, and persuade customers to purchase the product or service. Effective promotion strategies consider the target audience, message, and the most appropriate channels to reach potential customers.


Definition: Distribution, also known as place, refers to the process of making products or services available to customers.

Distribution involves selecting and managing channels of distribution, such as wholesalers, retailers, or direct sales. It includes activities like transportation, warehousing, inventory management, and order fulfillment. Effective distribution strategies ensure that products reach the right place at the right time, maximizing convenience for customers.


Definition: Selling refers to the process of persuading customers to purchase a product or service.

Selling involves personal interactions between sales representatives and customers. It includes activities like prospecting, presenting, handling objections, and closing the sale. Effective selling techniques focus on building relationships, understanding customer needs, and providing solutions that meet those needs.

Marketing Communication

Definition: Marketing communication involves the strategic planning and execution of messages to target audiences to achieve marketing objectives.

Marketing communication includes various elements like advertising, public relations, direct marketing, and digital marketing. It aims to create a consistent brand image, build customer relationships, and influence customer behavior. Effective marketing communication strategies align with the overall marketing objectives and target the right audience with the right message.

Customer Service

Definition: Customer service refers to the support and assistance provided to customers before, during, and after the purchase of a product or service.

Customer service plays a vital role in customer satisfaction and retention. It involves addressing customer inquiries, resolving complaints, and providing post-purchase support. Effective customer service strategies focus on building long-term relationships, exceeding customer expectations, and turning customers into brand advocates.


In conclusion, the eight functions of marketing are market research, product development, pricing, promotion, distribution, selling, marketing communication, and customer service. These functions work together to create value for customers, build strong brands, and drive business success. By understanding and effectively executing these functions, organizations can gain a competitive advantage in the market.


– American Marketing Association: www.ama.org
– Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2016). Principles of Marketing. Pearson Education.